The words that we use can be divided into different classes that are called Parts of Speech.
A part of speech is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Words that are assigned to the same part of speech generally display similar behavior in terms of syntax – They play similar roles within the grammatical structure of sentences and sometimes in terms of morphology, in that they undergo inflection for similar properties.
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes article or determiner.A NOUNA noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place or thing.
Here are some examples of nouns: boy, river, friend, Mexico, triangle, day, school, truth, university, idea, John F. Kennedy, movie, aunt, vacation, eye, dream, flag, teacher, class, grammar. John is a noun because it is the name of a person; Mexico is a noun because it is the name of a place; and boy is a noun because it is the name of a thing. Noun has different forms and functions.
Types of Noun Forms and Functions:
Abstract Noun and Concrete Noun
Abstract Noun:A noun (such ascourageorfreedom) that names an idea, event, quality, orconcept. (e.g Loveis an irresistibledesireto be irresistibly desired)
Concrete Noun: A noun (such aschickenoregg) that names a material or tangible object or phenomenon–something recognizable through the senses.(e.g A littlebabysleeping in acot)
Note: anabstract noun refers to an action, concept, event, quality, or state (love, conversation), whereas a concrete noun refers to a touchable, observable person or thing (child, tree)
Animate Noun and Inanimate Noun
Animate Noun: A category of noun, referring to a person, animal, or other creature. (e.g The European hunted for presents for hiswifeand the womenon his staff back home)
Inanimate Noun: A semantic category of noun that refers to a place, thing, or idea–not a person, animal, or other creature. (e.g Boluwatife loves to shop. On aMarch dayin an elegantcrafts storeinLima, the Peruvian capital, he hunted forpresentsfor his wife and the women on his staff backhome. He had given aspeechat auniversityearlier and just came from a ceremony kicking off aprogramto help impoverished Peruvians. Now he was eyeing anecklace with a greenstone amulet.)
Attributive Noun: A noun that modifies another noun and functions as an adjective.(e.g King Tutankhamun is known as the “boy king” because he became the pharaoh of Egypt atthe age of nine)Boy in this sentence is modifying the nounking.Collective Noun:A noun (such asteam, committee,orfamily) that refers to a group of individuals. (e.g The minority is sometimes right; themajorityalways wrong, A group of crowsis called amurder)
Common Noun and Proper Noun
Common Noun: A noun that’s not the name of any particular person, place, or thing. A common noun represents one or all of the members of a class,and it can be preceded by the definite article (the).(e.g Thetreehas been stripped of its leaves during the winter)
Proper Noun: A noun belongingto the class of words used as names for unique individuals, events, or places. Contrast with common noun.(e.g Fred, New York, Mars, Coca Cola)
Countable Noun and Uncountable NounCountable Noun: A noun that refers to an object or idea that can form a plural or occur in a noun phrase with an indefinite article or with numerals.(e.g The creation of a thousandforestsis in oneacorn)Uncountable Noun: A noun (such asadvice, bread, knowledge, luck, spaghetti,andwork) that names things that inEnglish cannot usually be counted.Many nouns have both countable and non-countable uses, such as the countable “dozen eggs” and the non-countable “eggon his face.”
Denominal Noun: A noun that is formed from another noun, usually by adding a suffix–such as villager(from village),New Yorker(fromNew York),booklet(frombook),limeade(fromlime),lectureship(fromlecture), andlibrarian(fromlibrary).
Deverbal and Verbal Noun
Deverbal Noun: A word (usually a noun or an adjective) that is derived from a verb. Also calledderivative nounandderivative adjective. Put another way, a deverbal is a verb that has beenconverted to a noun or an adjective by the addition of an appropriatemorpheme. (e.g . . .baker, a noun derived from a verb by attaching the suffix-er.)
Verbal Noun: A noun that is derived from a verb (usually by adding the suffix-ing) and that exhibits the ordinary properties of a noun.(e.g The building with a blue roof.)
Plurale Tantum: A noun that appears only in the plural and does not have a singular form. Plural,pluralia tantum. (A noun that appears only in the singular form–such asdirt–is known assingulare tantum.)